Adding Basemaps in QGIS 3.0

This post is a very quick guide on adding basemaps in QGIS 3.0. There are probably lots of options but these are the 3 that I prefer to quickly add many types of basemaps for use in QGIS.

1. Quick Map Services Plug In

Using the QuickMapServices Plugin is probably the easiest way to add basemaps in QGIS. This beloved has just been updated to work with the new QGIS 3.0. To add in the plugin just do the following:

  • Open QGIS. Go to Plugins Menu >> Manage and Install Plugins...
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  • In the Plugins Window, search for QuickMapServices then click Install button. Note if you have this plugin installed from a previous version of QGIS then it may have been updated as well.
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  • After it installs, you should be able to find QuickMapServices button in the Web Toolbar.
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  • Click on the button to get the drop down menu >> Settings. In the QuickMapServices Settings window, go to the More Services tab >> Click Get Contributed Pack to get more basemaps. Then go to the Visibility tab and turn on/off the basemaps you want to display in the menu
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2. XYZ Tiles

The second way to add basemaps in QGIS is to use XYZ Tiles by connecting to a tile service. Right click on XYZ Tiles >> New Connections. In the XZY Connection window, fill in the info and you should be good to go.

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But if you prefer to use a script to add in multiple basemap sources at once, here is a python script to do just that -- it is super handy. Much thanks and appreciation to the many out there for sharing their work. Go to https://raw.githubusercontent.com/klakar/QGIS_resources/master/collections/Geosupportsystem/python/qgis_basemaps.py  and copy and paste this in the python console in QGIS.

  • To open the Python Console, go to Plugins Menu >> Python Console.
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  • Then in the Python Console window, paste in the script that you copied from the URL linked above. Run it and you should see a list of basemaps under the XYZ Tiles in the Browser panel.
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That's it! Add basemaps to your heart's content.

3D DEM Visualization in QGIS 3.0

The other day I just happened to be looking through ESRI’s ArcUser magazine (Winter 2018) while waiting for a process to finish on my computer, and came across an article on visualizing DEM using multidirectional hillshade -  Create Amazing Hillshade Effects Quickly and Easily in ArcGIS Pro.  Inspired by this article, I thought I would try do the same thing in QGIS 3.0. Below is a short tutorial on how to visualize a DEM in 3D with QGIS 3.0. I'm thinking that the more I use QGIS (especially the newest update) the more I like it.

A quick note on traditional vs multidirectional hillshade:

Traditional Hillshade: hillshading illuminated from 315 deg azimuth - so only single source of light

Multidirectional Hillshade: a combination of hillshading illuminated from 225, 270, 315, and 360 deg azimuth - 4 different sources of light

1. Download DEM

First, you'll need a DEM for your area of interest. For this tutorial, I downloaded a 1 meter DEM for Diamond Head Crater from NOAA Data Access Viewer. Below is the specs I used for my download.

DEMSpec.jpg

After you download your DEM, unzipped it. You're going to then use QGIS 3.0 to view it

2. Create Multidirectional hillshade

I am using QGIS 3.0 and I assume you have it installed already. So here's what you're going to do. First, add the DEM to the QGIS, then make a copy of it. You'll end up having 2 DEM layers for viewing purposes: 1) colored DEM used for drapping over 2) the hillshade. You are not actually creating a new layer or doing anything to the actual DEM.

  • In QGIS open add your DEM to the Layers Panel
  • Make a copy of the DEM. Right Click on your DEM >> Duplicate
  • Optional - In your Layers Panel, rename your second copy of the DEM to indicate that this layer will have the Hillshade effect applied to it - like the screenshot below:
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  • Turn off the top layer cuz you're going to create the hillshade effect on the second layer first.
  • Right click on Hillshade_oahu_dem_2013 >> Properties >> Style
    • Render type: Hillshade
    • Multidirectional: check the box
    • Resampling: Use either Bilinear or Cubic and Average to get a smoother looking hillshade. The default Natural Neighbor produced weird cross hatching effect.
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Try to see what happens when you checked (multidirectional hillshade) and unchecking (traditional hillshade) the Multidirectional hillshade box. Here's are two views of a traditional hillshade and a multidirectional one. It looks to me like there is less shadowing  in the multidirectional hillshade (which would make sense if illumination is coming from multiple directions) then the traditional one - this though I think makes it have less contrast (?) so things don't seem to pop out as much??

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3. Drape Colored DEM Over Hillshade

After you create the multidirectional hillshade, you're going to just change the color of the top DEM layer and "draped" it on top.

  • Right click on the top DEM (e.g. oahu_dem_2013) >> Properties >> Style
    • Rendered type: single pseudocolor
    • Make sure min/max values are correct for your DEM
    • Color ramp: Use drop down menu >> Select all Color Ramps >> BrBG (this is the one I'm using). To invert color ramp, right click inside the color box >> Invert Color
    • Blending mode: Multiple (this produces better effects than Normal blending with transparency)
    • Resampling: again use Bilinear or Cubic to get smoother effect
    • Optional Transparency: change transparent if you want. I have it at 50%.
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Here is a view with the colored DEM draped over the multidirectional hillshade. Play around with the setting options to get your desired effect.

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For comparison, here's the same view I did in ArcGIS Pro. Both results look really good - although I think ArcGIS Pro's multidirectional effect (using default settings) has a slight edge over the QGIS one (also using default settings).

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4. Create 3D Map View

You can now view/simulate 3D landscape (DEM) in QGIS 3.0 natively without a plugin.

  • In QGIS, go to View menu >> New 3D Map View
  • In the 3D Map 1 window: click the Configure button
    • Elevation: select your DEM or the hillshade
    • Make any changes to the other settings if you want
  • In the 3D Map 1 window: hold down the shift key and the left mouse button to zoom in/out and rotate
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Did you also know that you can customize the QGIS user interface by stacking and moving panels and map views around - try dragging and docking the panels in your user interface. The image below shows my user interface setup with the main map view or canvas on the left and the 3D Map view on the right.

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Here is one of my favorite 3D visualization where I burned an aerial (ESRI Aerial base map) into the multidirectional hillshade in QGIS.

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QGIS and ArcGIS Pro DEM Comparisons

My conclusion having used the same method for 3D DEM visualization in both QGIS 3.0 and ArcGIS Pro is that they're both very good and comparable. Of course you can do some comparisons and decide for yourself, but I think QGIS does a great job considering it is free. Anyway, below are some of my snapshots for comparison.

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That's it for this post. I hope you enjoyed reading it. Feel free to drop me a note in the comments section or via email anytime.

A Simple Leaflet Web Map Example

By now I think everyone has heard of Leaflet. I've been playing around with it on and off over the last year. For this post, I thought I'd write about a simple Leaflet map example, using Leaflet and ESRI Leaflet plugin. I am not a coding expert by any means, just someone who likes to learn, so I try to annotate/comment in my code as much as I can. This post is not a step-by-step guide in creating a Leaflet Maps but rather comments and notes on what I've learned in the process of using/learning Leaflet. However, feel free to download the source files and use it however you like.

The Leaflet example uses several plugins and calls layers from the Hawaii Statewide GIS Program's ArcGIS REST service and the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) Geoserver. You can view and download the source files on my GitHub account and also view the demonstration site as well.

Demo Web Map: https://stephsaephan.github.io/leaflet-map-example/

For the demo web map all of the data layers are turned off by default with exception of a basemap. I also include OSM 2.5D builidngs to the map as well.

Source files: https://github.com/StephSaephan/leaflet-map-example

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3 Lessons I Learned:

plugins

Not all plugins will work well together, even if they come from the same source. Case in point, ESRI Render Plugin will render layers using the default symbology as defined by ArcGIS REST service. This plugin though doesn't currently work with the ESRI Cluster Plugin

Legends in Leaflet

Legends are harder to implement than it seems. I didn't include legends on the demo web map, but I have tried adding legends from ArcGIS and GeoServer. See images below.

I've used this ESRI Leaflet Legend plugin to call a legend for a feature service. Below is a a example code snippet for calling ArcGIS REST Legend. I didn't go any further than just trying to see if it'll work.

Fig0007.jpg
 ArcGIS REST Legend displayed on map, but not exactly working the way I want it to.

ArcGIS REST Legend displayed on map, but not exactly working the way I want it to.

Here is another code snippet for displaying a legend from a Geoserver WMS using the Get Legend Graphics request. This is calling from an in-house geoserver I set up.

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Secured (https) and unsecured (Http) items

I have the demo leaflet web map hosted on GitHub - which is free to use if the repository is public, and by default will be secured. When I access the demo site, I get the warnings:

Internet Explorer:  This site contains both secure and nonsecure items.  Do you want to display the nonsecure item?

Firefox:  Parts of this page are not secure (such as images)

Chrome:  This page includes other resources which are not secure. 

This warnings occurs when items on the following web site (frames, images and other objects) are referenced in a non-secure manner (http).  For example the page code might include an image or code that pulls from a non-secure URL. Both the PacIOOS GeoServer and Hawaii Statewide GIS ArcGIS REST services unsecured - on http , so hence the warning messages. However, I noticed though that features from the PacIOOS unsecured geoserver will still display on the web map but not features on the ArcGIS REST service - snapshots are shown below.

 PacIOOS Geoserver is unsecured (hhtp)

PacIOOS Geoserver is unsecured (hhtp)

 Hawaii Statewide GIS ArcGIS REST service is unsecured (http)

Hawaii Statewide GIS ArcGIS REST service is unsecured (http)

 Leaflet web map hosted on secured site (https) but referencing items from unsecured (http) sites (PacIOOS and Hawaii State GIS).

Leaflet web map hosted on secured site (https) but referencing items from unsecured (http) sites (PacIOOS and Hawaii State GIS).

Solution is to use one of the following:

  • Link to https explicitly:

Some websites will use both http and https. If you can access the items by using https then use that instead. Testing explicit https,  I was able to access the Hawaii Statewide ArcGIS REST services (https://geodata.hawaii.gov/arcgis/rest/services) but not the PacIOOS Geoserver (https://geo.pacioos.hawaii.edu/geoserver)

  • Use relative linking if on your own domain
  • Use protocol relative linking to use images/items from other domains. This is the option I used in my Leaflet example, like so:

This works: '//geodata.hawaii.gov/arcgis/rest/services/Terrestrial/MapServer/34'

This does not work ( at least not from GitHub https, but it works locally when I do live preview locally from Brackets): //geo.pacioos.hawaii.edu/geoserver/wms?

So I kept the URL for the PacIOOS geoserver WMS as http as it displayed on the web map.

That's it for this post. Thanks for reading.

Blogging Offline Using Markdown and Brackets

This post is not GIS related, but I thought I'd write about it. I'm using Squarespace for this website, and it can be a pain to write blog posts in the online editor. I want to be able to write when I'm offline and post when I'm done. So, I've been thinking of a workflow to do this. I'm experimenting with Markdown and Brackets to do this. I love Brackets for coding - it's an elegant piece of software with lots of extensions/plugins to do everything I need it to. For more info on Markdown, see John Gruber's site for the original/standard Markdown specs and usage. Squarespace has a Markdown cheatsheet as well. You can also find other flavors of Markdown as well. Note that you don't have to use Brackets to write your blog post in Markdown - any text editor (e.g. Wordpad, notepad, Word, etc) as long as you use the Markdown syntax.

Here is my workflow. If anyone happens to know of a more efficient way to blog offline with Squarespace, please let know.

Install Brackets with Markdown Plugins

  1. Download and install Brackets. Then use the Extension Manager in Brackets to download and install the Markdown Preview and Markdown Toolbar plugins.

  2. Write your blog post in Brackets using Markdown syntax as I am doing here. See Squarespace's Markdown cheatsheet for more info.

Below is a snapshot of my Brackets workspace.
https://www.opengislab.com/s/Fig0001.png

Set up Squarespace "Media" Folder

  1. In my Squarespace Pages directory, I've created a folder in the "Not Linked" section to upload and organize my images. I save my images in the order that I will insert them into my blog page (e.g. Fig0001.png, Fig00002.png). Each image is added as a "Link" page in the folder.

To access the URL of the images, click the linkname and see the properties. You'll see that it begin with "/s/filename.xxx". Just append the URL of your site in front of that - e.g. https://www.yoursite.com/s/filename.xxx

https://www.opengislab.com/s/Fig0002.png

2.. When you're done writing, just copy and paste the Markdown text into your blog page using Squarespace's Markdown Block

https://www.opengislab.com/s/Fig0003.png

https://www.opengislab.com/s/Fig0004.png

That's it. And for anyone who is interested, I used a software called FastStone Capture to capture my screenshots - I've been using this for years and like it a lot. You can't beat $20 for a lifetime license. It's not as fancy as something like Snagit but has a low learning curve and does everything I need.

Hope you enjoy this post. Until next time...